Ethnic conflict and proprotional mixed system myanmar pdf

Ethnic conflict and proprotional mixed system myanmar pdf
list system as in South Africa, parties may draw up mixed-slates with candidates of different groups. 10 However, Reynolds’ claim that “PR also encourages parties, both large and small, to create regionally, ethnically and gender diverse lists, as they need to appeal to a wide spectrum
15/10/2015 · Myanmar’s ethnic minority organisations now face a double marginalisation, militarily as well as politically. It is a new era for Myanmar, but there is trouble ahead for ethnic minorities . There are two main tiers in Myanmar’s peace process.
Minority Ethnic Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland Prepared for Submission to CEDAW June 2013 NICEM Report Monica McWilliams and Priyamvada Yarnell. 1 The Protection and Rights of Black and Minority Ethnic Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland Prepared for Submission to CEDAW, June 2013 NICEM Report Monica McWilliams …
Ethnic Armed Actors and. Justice Provision in Myanmar. Brian McCartan and Kim Jolliffe. October 2016. Preface . As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic armed actors (EAAs). These included ethnic armed organizations, with ceasefires or in conflict
In mixed systems (e.g. Parallel and Mixed Member Proportional), representatives are elected through a combination of different elements of the PR and plurality systems. Plurality systems are the most widely used worldwide.
DASSK did not announce that the NLD would boycott in 2015 conditional on a constitutional revision. Even in the article you cite, she made suggestive comments, and then said that the NLD was not decided on whether to run.
Resolution of Ethnic Conflict in Myanmar N. Ganesan The process of democratization that began in 2010 in Myanmar has benefitted the peace process with the ethnic insurgent groups. While the first Thein Sein government was only nominally civilian and the democratization process itself is a top down effort initiated by the military, democratization has structurally and institutionally
Background of the conflict in Burma : Background of the conflict in Burma Nyo Ohn Myint National League for Democracy (Liberated Area) International Conference on Burma/Myanmar in Jakarta 6th – 7th March 2008 Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract. Both natural resource wealth and electoral system design are frequently investigated factors in the civil wars literature. So far, however, there is no well-known study which explicitly considers the interaction effect between these two factors on the risk of violent ethnic conflict.
of internal, often ethnic, conflict (adjusting traditional democratic concepts and practices to the exigencies of inter-community relations). The principal problems facing Myanmar, as far as process is concerned, are the active
party system as a mirror of organised social groups and social conflicts, and the institutional approach, that looks at the impact of institutions on the party systems. The probably most
ethnic and religious profiles. In each site, up to four focus group discussions were held with an average of eight people per groups, including women and reaching approximately 200 beneficiaries, Camp Management Committee/ Food Management Committee members and 90 traders. Additionally, the consultation with International and local NGOs, UN agencies and three suppliers from Myanmar Rice
In Myanmar, a majority of disputes are dealt with through a variety of non-state, traditional, custo-mary, religious and informal dispute-resolution systems. The o˛cial formal justice institutions, such as the police or state courts, are associated with high levels of corruption and ine˛ciency and thus avoided as much as possible, in particular by poor people and minorities. Lack of access
Is Myanmar using the best voting system? In 1996, New Zealand traded first-past-the-post for mixed member proportional representation, whereby half the seats are awarded based on first-past-the-post voting and the remainder according to the proportion of votes for each party. The effect was dramatic; New Zealand went from basically a two-party system to having representatives from eight
The Asia Foundation is pleased to present this report, which examines the governance dynamics in southeastern Myanmar around the 67-year-old conflict between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Myanmar …
Durable Peace Programme Baseline Report
https://www.youtube.com/embed/XSVZB3zJ35I
IOM Myanmar Maternal Newborn and Child Health
Country Studies Series Myanmar Brandeis University
for the education system to contribute to promoting sustainable peacebuilding. Uganda, another country in Africa, remains divided between a peaceful South and Central Region and a Northern region that has suffered a series of punctuated armed conflicts for almost three decades. Pakistan, in South Asia, is a huge country that has suffered from a series of conflicts in recent years, linked to
in Myanmar – a political solution to decades of armed conflict which key stakeholders have endorsed. It will be very difficult for conflict-affected parts of Myanmar to move from the current mixture of service delivery systems and governance regimes towards a formalized (federal) system, without better coordination, and substantial political and technical negotiations.
MIGRANTS FROM MYANMAR AND RISKS FACED ABROAD A desk study International Organization for Migration YEARS. The views, opinions, findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of IOM or its Member States. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the work do not imply the expression of any opinion
Land conflicts have become one of the central issues currently confronting the Myanmar reform government and will be a topic of forthcoming Forest Trends reports. It has long been published that the military and government allocate logging concessions to Burmese “crony”
more mixed in GCA than KCA/NGCA areas, in which people predominantly identify as Kachin. Most ethnic Kachin are Christian (the main denominations are Baptist and Catholic), while most Bamar and some Shan are Buddhist. Current day Kachin is very much shaped by decades of civil war. Since the 1960s, the KIO/A and Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) have been engaged in armed conflict, …
MIGRANTS FROM MYANMAR AND RISKS FACED ABROAD
Human rights are grossly and persistently violated throughout Myanmar. The victims The victims come from every section of society, and every ethnic and religious group.
Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars I 137 Both sides in the current debate are wrong, because solutions to ethnic wars do not depend on their causes.
systems, ambitions, and attainments is much more extensive than ever before. In 1914, in the wake of the crumbling of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires, there …
July 2017 5 EDITORIAL NOTE Editorial Board Every theme that appears in the Journal on Education in Emergencies is by definition timely and important.
to resolve Myanmar s long histories of ethnic conflict (Sao Sanda, 2008). 5 As Ashley South explains, [h]istory suggests that, unless political elites can forge workable alternatives to the cycle of (ethnic) conflict and violent suppression,
Ethnic Armed Actors and Justice Provision in Myanmar. DOWNLOAD PDF. By Brian McCartan, Kim Jolliffe. As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic …
main profiteers from the ongoing conflict of Myanmar. International NGOs, such as Human Rights Watch and Earthrights International, have developed campaigns to pressure multinational corporations to end their business relationships with the Myanmar government, with mixed success. As long as these corporations and others cooperate with the military regime, it will be nearly impossible for their
Initial contribution to promote peace in Myanmar’s conflict-affected regions … health and education services, demining activities and small cash grants to kick-start small businesses.
Myanmar sectarian violence in Rakhine—issues
Electoral Systems and the Representation of Minorities The case of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia Paper prepared for presentation at the Peace Science Society/International Studies Association Joint International Conference, Budapest, June 27-29, 2013 Abstract Proportional Representation (PR) is the electoral system most widely recommended to divided societies, particularly in the aftermath of
Proportional Representation without Proportional Participation Nepal adopted a mixed electoral system for Constituent Assembly elections, with First Pass the Post (FPTP) and Proportional Representation (PR) techniques.
Civil wars are not all alike.6 Ethnic conflicts are disputes between communities which see themselves as having distinct heritages, over the power relationship between the communities, while ideological civil wars are contests between
Methods. Interviews were conducted in 2009 with a group of Chin refugees, and also with established members of the community who graciously facilitated introductions and …
Designed to sit along the 2008 set, Electoral Behaviour, this collection brings together leading electoral systems experts from either side of the Atlantic. The last 25 years have seen this initially underdeveloped discipline in political science grow exponentially in level and range of output.
https://www.youtube.com/embed/BwW9QV5Ulmw
ELECTORAL SYSTEMS AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT COMPARING
• The Karen people are the 2 nd largest ethnic group in Burma / Myanmar • The Karen reside throughout Eastern Burma / Myanmar as well as other parts of the country. • The political formation of the Karen people predates independence (circa. 1881) • The Karen National Union (KNU) formed in 1947 (one year prior to independence) and gained control of several areas in Eastern Burma during
AP Comparative Government Comparisons Legitimacy Britain – huge due to tradition and gradualism Russia – yes, 1993 Constitution, 2000 transition from Yeltsin to Putin
8 Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization 9 Designing Electoral Rules and Waiting for an Electoral System to Evolve 10 Constitutional Engineering in Post‐Coup FijiThe South East region of Myanmar has been a zone of low-intensity civil conflict until recently, as ethnic armed groups (EAGs) have for more than half a century fought against the central
transnational institute Burma Policy Briefing1 Burma Policy Briefing Nr 13 February 2014 Overview Ethnic politics and statistics have long been among the most contested issues in Burma/ Myanmar.1 With one of the most diverse populations in Asia, Myanmar has been home to ethnic conflict and intractable political discord through every governmental era since independence from Great Britain in
system, under conditions of armed conflict, in a context where ethnic nationality communities have struggled for self-determination vis-à-vis a militarised state perceived as having an agenda of forced assimilation in relation to ethnic communities.
mixed or semi-proportional systems, and 4.0 in proportional systems18. (iii) The Inclusion of Ethnic Minority Parties The related claim is that by lowering the electoral barrier to …
After protracted wrangling, the IPA agreed to a mixed system of first-past- the-post plurality elections in 80 constituencies, with compensatory proportional representation for …
By Tulika Bansal and Vicky Bowman. Myanmar is going through a “triple transition”: from a military system to democratic governance, from a centrally directed economy to a market-oriented economy, and from 60 years of conflict to peace in its border areas inhabited by different ethnic groups.
Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts
The conflict is a symptom of long-term historical tensions between Rakhine Buddhists and Muslims, and contemporary political changes that reinvigorated anti-Muslim sentiment across Myanmar. Rigid
This article analyses the relationship between the politics of education and language, and armed conflict and ongoing peace process in Myanmar. It discusses the state education system, which since the military coup of 1962 has promoted the idea of the country based on the language and culture of the Bamar (Burman) majority community, and the school systems developed by ethnic armed groups
ETHNIC CONFLICT AND ELECTORAL ENGINEERING: THE SINGLE TRANSFERABLE VOTE IN NORTHERN IRELAND ABSTRACT The single transferable vote (STV) system is often held to have a special capacity to promote
Plans to Reform the Voting System in time for the 2015 Elections. In the lead-up to Myanmar’s 2015 elections, proposals to reform the country’s majoritarian variation of plurality voting have sparked the interest of the legislature.
Mixed-methods research composed of quantitative and qualitative approaches was implemented for the study. One-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to identify the interaction effect between dependent and independent variables. The study showed that the major sources of conflicts were ethnic differences, religious diversity, sexual abuse, theft and insulting. It was also noted
The MIT Press Journals American Foreign Policy PS123
MYANMAR ibiblio
Forest Trade and Finance

The Oxford Burma Alliance is a student-run organisation working to bring Burma issues to Oxford and to join together Burma activists and others with an interest in human rights and education.
Ballots not Bullets Ethnic Conflict & Electoral Systems Pippa Norris KSG – Harvard University
This study explores the ethnic dimension of the challenges that Nepal currently faces. Although Nepal has made substantial progress toward regaining political stability since April 2006, ethnic conflict has become a major problem.
Conflict in Burma / Myanmar has sent hundreds of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries to escape the ravages of war, exploitation, or harassment. In both the 1970s and again in the 1990s, about 200,000 Muslim refugees have fled into Bangladesh to escape the Burma army.
Burma Background of the Conflict in BurmaauthorSTREAM
Creating a "New Nepal" The Ethnic Dimension bookshop
Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars
Discussion of electoral system reform in Myanmar has been initiated by an alliance of small democratic parties and ethnic minority parties. Despite major public …
ACHIEVING HEALTH EQUITY IN CONTESTED AREAS OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR. BILL DAVIS AND KIM JOLLIFFE POLICY DIALOGUE BRIEF SERIES NO. 12. This Policy Dialogue Brief is a summarization of the original report, Achieving Health Equity in contested areas of Southeast Myanmar …
The focus of this presentation is ethnic conflict management in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Burma. The main academic theories of conflict management, the consociational and the centripetal, have rarely been implemented in Southeast Asia, except insofar as Malaysia inadvertently practiced centripetal politics because of its heterogeneous electoral constituencies from 1952 to 1969. Indonesia, on
But despite the availability of Myanmar medicinal plants publications stored in public archives (Ministry of Health, 2001, Ministry of Health, 2007), none so far has empirically recorded and emphasised the importance of documenting traditional medicinal knowledge of any of its diverse ethnic groups.
IOM Myanmar’s MNH activities: Kayah State has a varied population with over nine ethnic groups and more than six active languages. The region is burdened with conflict and challenges with governance, natural resource development and recognition of the rights of the state’s ethnic minorities. Many, as a result, have relocated to Thailand. A substantial proportion of those who have
Non-state ethnic education regimes in Burma/Myanmar March 2012 3 language schooling in a multi-ethnic country such as Burma – a prototype ‘federal’ education system.
26/04/2004 · Two schools of thought predominate. The scholarly orthodoxy has long argued that some form of proportional representation (PR) is needed in the face of deep-rooted ethnic divisions.
Victims of rape and sexual abuse by government forces in conflict areas in Myanmar ’ s ethnic minority regions have even less hope for a fair court case. The army has long been accused of protecting its soldiers from legal prosecution for such crimes.
28/10/2017 · Ruling the country based upon ethnicity has left many Ethiopians of mixed heritage restless and in limbo. For instance, when applying for identity cards, people of mixed ethnic background don’t know whether to identify with their mother’s or father’s ethnicity.
humanitarian assistance to conflict -affected and displaced communities; and promoting inclusive economic growth and government management. The performance of Australian aid in Myanmar was mixed in 2017 -18. Our core investments in education, rural livelihoods and humanitarian assistance met or exceeded performance targets. The three highest performing investments received around half of …
Ballots not Bullets Harvard University
In February, TNI-BCN hosted a two-day seminar, involving ethnic groups from different regions of Burma/Myanmar, 1 on the theme “political reform and consequences for ethnic conflict”. Those participating included 28 representatives from Burmese civil …

Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 38/1 (April 2016

Cooperation contestation conflict ethnic political

https://www.youtube.com/embed/uBuHRTW2pTo
TESTING CONSOCIATIONAL THEORIES OF ETHNIC CONFLICT

The Role of Teachers in Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion
wondershare pdf converter pro for mac Oxford Burma Alliance
Between Ceasefires and Federalism Exploring Interim
Chin Cultural Profile — EthnoMed
Electoral Systems SAGE Publications Ltd

LOCAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND UNEQUAL

Rape victims struggle to find justice in Myanmar Myanmar Now
Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars

humanitarian assistance to conflict -affected and displaced communities; and promoting inclusive economic growth and government management. The performance of Australian aid in Myanmar was mixed in 2017 -18. Our core investments in education, rural livelihoods and humanitarian assistance met or exceeded performance targets. The three highest performing investments received around half of …
15/10/2015 · Myanmar’s ethnic minority organisations now face a double marginalisation, militarily as well as politically. It is a new era for Myanmar, but there is trouble ahead for ethnic minorities . There are two main tiers in Myanmar’s peace process.
Is Myanmar using the best voting system? In 1996, New Zealand traded first-past-the-post for mixed member proportional representation, whereby half the seats are awarded based on first-past-the-post voting and the remainder according to the proportion of votes for each party. The effect was dramatic; New Zealand went from basically a two-party system to having representatives from eight
Conflict in Burma / Myanmar has sent hundreds of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries to escape the ravages of war, exploitation, or harassment. In both the 1970s and again in the 1990s, about 200,000 Muslim refugees have fled into Bangladesh to escape the Burma army.
DASSK did not announce that the NLD would boycott in 2015 conditional on a constitutional revision. Even in the article you cite, she made suggestive comments, and then said that the NLD was not decided on whether to run.
mixed or semi-proportional systems, and 4.0 in proportional systems18. (iii) The Inclusion of Ethnic Minority Parties The related claim is that by lowering the electoral barrier to …

Creating a “New Nepal” The Ethnic Dimension bookshop
Community-based teacher education in conflict-affected

system, under conditions of armed conflict, in a context where ethnic nationality communities have struggled for self-determination vis-à-vis a militarised state perceived as having an agenda of forced assimilation in relation to ethnic communities.
The conflict is a symptom of long-term historical tensions between Rakhine Buddhists and Muslims, and contemporary political changes that reinvigorated anti-Muslim sentiment across Myanmar. Rigid
Electoral Systems and the Representation of Minorities The case of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia Paper prepared for presentation at the Peace Science Society/International Studies Association Joint International Conference, Budapest, June 27-29, 2013 Abstract Proportional Representation (PR) is the electoral system most widely recommended to divided societies, particularly in the aftermath of
Methods. Interviews were conducted in 2009 with a group of Chin refugees, and also with established members of the community who graciously facilitated introductions and …
8 Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization 9 Designing Electoral Rules and Waiting for an Electoral System to Evolve 10 Constitutional Engineering in Post‐Coup Fiji
The South East region of Myanmar has been a zone of low-intensity civil conflict until recently, as ethnic armed groups (EAGs) have for more than half a century fought against the central
Conflict in Burma / Myanmar has sent hundreds of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries to escape the ravages of war, exploitation, or harassment. In both the 1970s and again in the 1990s, about 200,000 Muslim refugees have fled into Bangladesh to escape the Burma army.
transnational institute Burma Policy Briefing1 Burma Policy Briefing Nr 13 February 2014 Overview Ethnic politics and statistics have long been among the most contested issues in Burma/ Myanmar.1 With one of the most diverse populations in Asia, Myanmar has been home to ethnic conflict and intractable political discord through every governmental era since independence from Great Britain in
Civil wars are not all alike.6 Ethnic conflicts are disputes between communities which see themselves as having distinct heritages, over the power relationship between the communities, while ideological civil wars are contests between
main profiteers from the ongoing conflict of Myanmar. International NGOs, such as Human Rights Watch and Earthrights International, have developed campaigns to pressure multinational corporations to end their business relationships with the Myanmar government, with mixed success. As long as these corporations and others cooperate with the military regime, it will be nearly impossible for their
Ethnic Armed Actors and. Justice Provision in Myanmar. Brian McCartan and Kim Jolliffe. October 2016. Preface . As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic armed actors (EAAs). These included ethnic armed organizations, with ceasefires or in conflict
Initial contribution to promote peace in Myanmar’s conflict-affected regions … health and education services, demining activities and small cash grants to kick-start small businesses.
The focus of this presentation is ethnic conflict management in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Burma. The main academic theories of conflict management, the consociational and the centripetal, have rarely been implemented in Southeast Asia, except insofar as Malaysia inadvertently practiced centripetal politics because of its heterogeneous electoral constituencies from 1952 to 1969. Indonesia, on

Achieving Health Equity in Contested Areas of Southeast
The Protection and Rights of Black and Minority Ethnic

Mixed-methods research composed of quantitative and qualitative approaches was implemented for the study. One-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to identify the interaction effect between dependent and independent variables. The study showed that the major sources of conflicts were ethnic differences, religious diversity, sexual abuse, theft and insulting. It was also noted
28/10/2017 · Ruling the country based upon ethnicity has left many Ethiopians of mixed heritage restless and in limbo. For instance, when applying for identity cards, people of mixed ethnic background don’t know whether to identify with their mother’s or father’s ethnicity.
• The Karen people are the 2 nd largest ethnic group in Burma / Myanmar • The Karen reside throughout Eastern Burma / Myanmar as well as other parts of the country. • The political formation of the Karen people predates independence (circa. 1881) • The Karen National Union (KNU) formed in 1947 (one year prior to independence) and gained control of several areas in Eastern Burma during
Civil wars are not all alike.6 Ethnic conflicts are disputes between communities which see themselves as having distinct heritages, over the power relationship between the communities, while ideological civil wars are contests between
8 Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization 9 Designing Electoral Rules and Waiting for an Electoral System to Evolve 10 Constitutional Engineering in Post‐Coup Fiji
In mixed systems (e.g. Parallel and Mixed Member Proportional), representatives are elected through a combination of different elements of the PR and plurality systems. Plurality systems are the most widely used worldwide.
Ethnic Armed Actors and. Justice Provision in Myanmar. Brian McCartan and Kim Jolliffe. October 2016. Preface . As a result of decades of ongoing civil war, large areas of Myanmar remain outside government rule, or are subject to mixed control and governance by the government and an array of ethnic armed actors (EAAs). These included ethnic armed organizations, with ceasefires or in conflict
Background of the conflict in Burma : Background of the conflict in Burma Nyo Ohn Myint National League for Democracy (Liberated Area) International Conference on Burma/Myanmar in Jakarta 6th – 7th March 2008 Jakarta, Indonesia
The focus of this presentation is ethnic conflict management in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Burma. The main academic theories of conflict management, the consociational and the centripetal, have rarely been implemented in Southeast Asia, except insofar as Malaysia inadvertently practiced centripetal politics because of its heterogeneous electoral constituencies from 1952 to 1969. Indonesia, on
This study explores the ethnic dimension of the challenges that Nepal currently faces. Although Nepal has made substantial progress toward regaining political stability since April 2006, ethnic conflict has become a major problem.
AP Comparative Government Comparisons Legitimacy Britain – huge due to tradition and gradualism Russia – yes, 1993 Constitution, 2000 transition from Yeltsin to Putin
In Myanmar, a majority of disputes are dealt with through a variety of non-state, traditional, custo-mary, religious and informal dispute-resolution systems. The o˛cial formal justice institutions, such as the police or state courts, are associated with high levels of corruption and ine˛ciency and thus avoided as much as possible, in particular by poor people and minorities. Lack of access
Human rights are grossly and persistently violated throughout Myanmar. The victims The victims come from every section of society, and every ethnic and religious group.

Peace & Conflict in Myanmar Archives The Asia Foundation
The MIT Press Journals American Foreign Policy PS123

system, under conditions of armed conflict, in a context where ethnic nationality communities have struggled for self-determination vis-à-vis a militarised state perceived as having an agenda of forced assimilation in relation to ethnic communities.
Is Myanmar using the best voting system? In 1996, New Zealand traded first-past-the-post for mixed member proportional representation, whereby half the seats are awarded based on first-past-the-post voting and the remainder according to the proportion of votes for each party. The effect was dramatic; New Zealand went from basically a two-party system to having representatives from eight
In mixed systems (e.g. Parallel and Mixed Member Proportional), representatives are elected through a combination of different elements of the PR and plurality systems. Plurality systems are the most widely used worldwide.
ACHIEVING HEALTH EQUITY IN CONTESTED AREAS OF SOUTHEAST MYANMAR. BILL DAVIS AND KIM JOLLIFFE POLICY DIALOGUE BRIEF SERIES NO. 12. This Policy Dialogue Brief is a summarization of the original report, Achieving Health Equity in contested areas of Southeast Myanmar …

Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars
WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME MYANMAR

Non-state ethnic education regimes in Burma/Myanmar March 2012 3 language schooling in a multi-ethnic country such as Burma – a prototype ‘federal’ education system.
MIGRANTS FROM MYANMAR AND RISKS FACED ABROAD A desk study International Organization for Migration YEARS. The views, opinions, findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of IOM or its Member States. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the work do not imply the expression of any opinion
In mixed systems (e.g. Parallel and Mixed Member Proportional), representatives are elected through a combination of different elements of the PR and plurality systems. Plurality systems are the most widely used worldwide.
Land conflicts have become one of the central issues currently confronting the Myanmar reform government and will be a topic of forthcoming Forest Trends reports. It has long been published that the military and government allocate logging concessions to Burmese “crony”
The Asia Foundation is pleased to present this report, which examines the governance dynamics in southeastern Myanmar around the 67-year-old conflict between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Myanmar …
Conflict in Burma / Myanmar has sent hundreds of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries to escape the ravages of war, exploitation, or harassment. In both the 1970s and again in the 1990s, about 200,000 Muslim refugees have fled into Bangladesh to escape the Burma army.

Community-based teacher education in conflict-affected
Between Ceasefires and Federalism Exploring Interim

Background of the conflict in Burma : Background of the conflict in Burma Nyo Ohn Myint National League for Democracy (Liberated Area) International Conference on Burma/Myanmar in Jakarta 6th – 7th March 2008 Jakarta, Indonesia
Proportional Representation without Proportional Participation Nepal adopted a mixed electoral system for Constituent Assembly elections, with First Pass the Post (FPTP) and Proportional Representation (PR) techniques.
IOM Myanmar’s MNH activities: Kayah State has a varied population with over nine ethnic groups and more than six active languages. The region is burdened with conflict and challenges with governance, natural resource development and recognition of the rights of the state’s ethnic minorities. Many, as a result, have relocated to Thailand. A substantial proportion of those who have
of internal, often ethnic, conflict (adjusting traditional democratic concepts and practices to the exigencies of inter-community relations). The principal problems facing Myanmar, as far as process is concerned, are the active
Civil wars are not all alike.6 Ethnic conflicts are disputes between communities which see themselves as having distinct heritages, over the power relationship between the communities, while ideological civil wars are contests between
Discussion of electoral system reform in Myanmar has been initiated by an alliance of small democratic parties and ethnic minority parties. Despite major public …
Resolution of Ethnic Conflict in Myanmar N. Ganesan The process of democratization that began in 2010 in Myanmar has benefitted the peace process with the ethnic insurgent groups. While the first Thein Sein government was only nominally civilian and the democratization process itself is a top down effort initiated by the military, democratization has structurally and institutionally
to resolve Myanmar s long histories of ethnic conflict (Sao Sanda, 2008). 5 As Ashley South explains, [h]istory suggests that, unless political elites can forge workable alternatives to the cycle of (ethnic) conflict and violent suppression,
The Oxford Burma Alliance is a student-run organisation working to bring Burma issues to Oxford and to join together Burma activists and others with an interest in human rights and education.
• The Karen people are the 2 nd largest ethnic group in Burma / Myanmar • The Karen reside throughout Eastern Burma / Myanmar as well as other parts of the country. • The political formation of the Karen people predates independence (circa. 1881) • The Karen National Union (KNU) formed in 1947 (one year prior to independence) and gained control of several areas in Eastern Burma during
After protracted wrangling, the IPA agreed to a mixed system of first-past- the-post plurality elections in 80 constituencies, with compensatory proportional representation for …
MIGRANTS FROM MYANMAR AND RISKS FACED ABROAD A desk study International Organization for Migration YEARS. The views, opinions, findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of IOM or its Member States. The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout the work do not imply the expression of any opinion
party system as a mirror of organised social groups and social conflicts, and the institutional approach, that looks at the impact of institutions on the party systems. The probably most

Between Ceasefires and Federalism Exploring Interim
LOCAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND UNEQUAL

in Myanmar – a political solution to decades of armed conflict which key stakeholders have endorsed. It will be very difficult for conflict-affected parts of Myanmar to move from the current mixture of service delivery systems and governance regimes towards a formalized (federal) system, without better coordination, and substantial political and technical negotiations.
Mixed-methods research composed of quantitative and qualitative approaches was implemented for the study. One-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to identify the interaction effect between dependent and independent variables. The study showed that the major sources of conflicts were ethnic differences, religious diversity, sexual abuse, theft and insulting. It was also noted
main profiteers from the ongoing conflict of Myanmar. International NGOs, such as Human Rights Watch and Earthrights International, have developed campaigns to pressure multinational corporations to end their business relationships with the Myanmar government, with mixed success. As long as these corporations and others cooperate with the military regime, it will be nearly impossible for their
Resolution of Ethnic Conflict in Myanmar N. Ganesan The process of democratization that began in 2010 in Myanmar has benefitted the peace process with the ethnic insurgent groups. While the first Thein Sein government was only nominally civilian and the democratization process itself is a top down effort initiated by the military, democratization has structurally and institutionally
In February, TNI-BCN hosted a two-day seminar, involving ethnic groups from different regions of Burma/Myanmar, 1 on the theme “political reform and consequences for ethnic conflict”. Those participating included 28 representatives from Burmese civil …
8 Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization 9 Designing Electoral Rules and Waiting for an Electoral System to Evolve 10 Constitutional Engineering in Post‐Coup Fiji
Civil wars are not all alike.6 Ethnic conflicts are disputes between communities which see themselves as having distinct heritages, over the power relationship between the communities, while ideological civil wars are contests between
more mixed in GCA than KCA/NGCA areas, in which people predominantly identify as Kachin. Most ethnic Kachin are Christian (the main denominations are Baptist and Catholic), while most Bamar and some Shan are Buddhist. Current day Kachin is very much shaped by decades of civil war. Since the 1960s, the KIO/A and Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) have been engaged in armed conflict, …
list system as in South Africa, parties may draw up mixed-slates with candidates of different groups. 10 However, Reynolds’ claim that “PR also encourages parties, both large and small, to create regionally, ethnically and gender diverse lists, as they need to appeal to a wide spectrum

The Role of Teachers in Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion
Creating a “New Nepal” The Ethnic Dimension bookshop

Conflict in Burma / Myanmar has sent hundreds of thousands of refugees to neighboring countries to escape the ravages of war, exploitation, or harassment. In both the 1970s and again in the 1990s, about 200,000 Muslim refugees have fled into Bangladesh to escape the Burma army.
system, under conditions of armed conflict, in a context where ethnic nationality communities have struggled for self-determination vis-à-vis a militarised state perceived as having an agenda of forced assimilation in relation to ethnic communities.
Proportional Representation without Proportional Participation Nepal adopted a mixed electoral system for Constituent Assembly elections, with First Pass the Post (FPTP) and Proportional Representation (PR) techniques.
The conflict is a symptom of long-term historical tensions between Rakhine Buddhists and Muslims, and contemporary political changes that reinvigorated anti-Muslim sentiment across Myanmar. Rigid